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This can happen whenever moving a reference from one page to another causes some other page number to change—LaTeX basically can’t decide which page it is on, so our build system (called latexmk) keeps running latex over and over, but it never converges. Eventually it gives up, and the result is an error on Overleaf. We are working on improving the error message in this case, to make it easier to diagnose the problem.

The best thing to do is, unfortunately, to try to rework the page to avoid the problem. For example, you might add a \newpage or vertical skip to force LaTeX to move the problematic paragraph or section to the next page.