Overleaf analyzed the source code of 9 TeX engines to determine the primitive commands supported by each of those engines; that analysis resulted in a combined list of over 1000 different commands. Due to the amount of data, it has been split into two sets of tables—both compare 5 different TeX engines (Knuth's original TeX is contained in both data sets):

Readers interested to know how this data was prepared can find further information in the article How Overleaf created the TeX primitive reference data.

### TeX for Japanese, Chinese and Korean (CJK) typesetting

The Japanese TeX community has developed a number of TeX engines designed to cater for the complexities of typesetting Japanese text:

• $$\text{p}\mathrm\TeX$$: Knuth’s TeX engine extended to support Japanese typesetting;
• $$\text{ep}\mathrm\TeX$$: a combination of e-TeX and pTeX (plus a few primitives introduced by pdfTeX);
• $$\text{up}\mathrm\TeX$$: a Unicode-aware version of pTeX plus extensions for better handling of CJK (Chinese, Japanese and Korean);
• $$\text{eup}\mathrm\TeX$$: a combination (merge) of e-TeX and upTeX.

A short overview of these 4 engines can be found here.

## The list of primitives for CJK TeX engines

The tables below show which TeX engine(s) support each command:

• ✔ indicates that a TeX engine supports that command;
• ✖ indicates that a TeX engine does not support that command;

To ease navigation, the list of primitives is further broken down into alphabetical groups contained in sub-tables. Each sub-table is preceded by this navigation bar which enables you to quickly access the various alphabetical groupings of commands:

### Primitives starting with "- /A—C"

$$\text{Primitive}$$ $$\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version 3.14159265}$$
$$\text{p}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version p3.8.1}$$
$$\text{ep}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version no. 180226}$$
$$\text{up}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version u1.23}$$
$$\text{eup}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{composite}$$
\<space>
\-
\/
\above
\abovedisplayshortskip
\abovedisplayskip
\abovewithdelims
\accent
\afterassignment
\aftergroup
\atop
\atopwithdelims
\autospacing
\autoxspacing
\baselineskip
\batchmode
\begingroup
\beginL
\beginR
\belowdisplayshortskip
\belowdisplayskip
\binoppenalty
\botmark
\botmarks
\box
\boxmaxdepth
\brokenpenalty
\catcode
\char
\chardef
\charsubdef
\charsubdefmax
\closein
\closeout
\clubpenalties
\clubpenalty
\copy
\count
\countdef
\cr
\crcr
\csname
\currentgrouplevel
\currentgrouptype
\currentifbranch
\currentiflevel
\currentiftype

### Primitives starting with "D—F"

$$\text{Primitive}$$ $$\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version 3.14159265}$$
$$\text{p}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version p3.8.1}$$
$$\text{ep}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version no. 180226}$$
$$\text{up}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version u1.23}$$
$$\text{eup}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{composite}$$
\day
\def
\defaulthyphenchar
\defaultskewchar
\delcode
\delimiter
\delimiterfactor
\delimitershortfall
\detokenize
\dimen
\dimendef
\dimexpr
\disablecjktoken
\discretionary
\displayindent
\displaylimits
\displaystyle
\displaywidowpenalties
\displaywidowpenalty
\displaywidth
\divide
\doublehyphendemerits
\dp
\dtou
\dump
\edef
\else
\emergencystretch
\enablecjktoken
\end
\endcsname
\endgroup
\endinput
\endL
\endlinechar
\endmubyte
\endR
\epTeXinputencoding
\epTeXversion
\eqno
\errhelp
\errmessage
\errorcontextlines
\errorstopmode
\escapechar
\eTeXrevision
\eTeXversion
\euc
\everycr
\everydisplay
\everyeof
\everyhbox
\everyjob
\everymath
\everypar
\everyvbox
\exhyphenpenalty
\expandafter
\fam
\fi
\finalhyphendemerits
\firstmark
\firstmarks
\floatingpenalty
\font
\fontchardp
\fontcharht
\fontcharic
\fontcharwd
\fontdimen
\fontname
\forcecjktoken
\futurelet

### Primitives starting with "G—I"

$$\text{Primitive}$$ $$\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version 3.14159265}$$
$$\text{p}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version p3.8.1}$$
$$\text{ep}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version no. 180226}$$
$$\text{up}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version u1.23}$$
$$\text{eup}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{composite}$$
\gdef
\global
\globaldefs
\glueexpr
\glueshrink
\glueshrinkorder
\gluestretch
\gluestretchorder
\gluetomu
\halign
\hangafter
\hangindent
\hbox
\hfi
\hfil
\hfill
\hfilneg
\hfuzz
\hoffset
\holdinginserts
\hrule
\hsize
\hskip
\hss
\ht
\hyphenation
\hyphenchar
\hyphenpenalty
\if
\ifcase
\ifcat
\ifcsname
\ifdbox
\ifddir
\ifdefined
\ifdim
\ifeof
\iffalse
\iffontchar
\ifhbox
\ifhmode
\ifinner
\ifmbox
\ifmdir
\ifmmode
\ifnum
\ifodd
\ifpdfprimitive
\iftbox
\iftdir
\iftrue
\ifvbox
\ifvmode
\ifvoid
\ifx
\ifybox
\ifydir
\ignorespaces
\immediate
\indent
\inhibitglue
\inhibitxspcode
\input
\inputlineno
\insert
\insertpenalties
\interactionmode
\interlinepenalties
\interlinepenalty

### Primitives starting with "J—L"

$$\text{Primitive}$$ $$\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version 3.14159265}$$
$$\text{p}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version p3.8.1}$$
$$\text{ep}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version no. 180226}$$
$$\text{up}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version u1.23}$$
$$\text{eup}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{composite}$$
\jcharwidowpenalty
\jfam
\jfont
\jis
\jobname
\kanjiskip
\kansuji
\kansujichar
\kcatcode
\kchar
\kchardef
\kern
\kuten
\language
\lastbox
\lastkern
\lastlinefit
\lastnodechar
\lastnodesubtype
\lastnodetype
\lastpenalty
\lastskip
\lccode
\left
\lefthyphenmin
\leftskip
\leqno
\let
\limits
\linepenalty
\lineskip
\lineskiplimit
\long
\looseness
\lower
\lowercase

### Primitives starting with "M—O"

$$\text{Primitive}$$ $$\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version 3.14159265}$$
$$\text{p}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version p3.8.1}$$
$$\text{ep}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version no. 180226}$$
$$\text{up}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version u1.23}$$
$$\text{eup}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{composite}$$
\mag
\mark
\marks
\mathaccent
\mathbin
\mathchar
\mathchardef
\mathchoice
\mathclose
\mathcode
\mathinner
\mathop
\mathopen
\mathord
\mathpunct
\mathrel
\mathsurround
\maxdepth
\meaning
\medmuskip
\message
\middle
\mkern
\month
\moveleft
\moveright
\mskip
\mubyte
\mubytein
\mubytelog
\mubyteout
\muexpr
\multiply
\muskip
\muskipdef
\mutoglue
\newlinechar
\noalign
\noautospacing
\noautoxspacing
\noboundary
\noconvert
\noexpand
\noindent
\nolimits
\nonscript
\nonstopmode
\nulldelimiterspace
\nullfont
\number
\numexpr
\odelcode
\odelimiter
\omathaccent
\omathchar
\omathchardef
\omathcode
\omit
\openin
\openout
\or
\outer
\output
\outputpenalty
\over
\overfullrule
\overline
\overwithdelims

### Primitives starting with "P"

$$\text{Primitive}$$ $$\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version 3.14159265}$$
$$\text{p}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version p3.8.1}$$
$$\text{ep}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version no. 180226}$$
$$\text{up}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version u1.23}$$
$$\text{eup}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{composite}$$
\pagedepth
\pagefilllstretch
\pagefillstretch
\pagefilstretch
\pagefistretch
\pagegoal
\pageshrink
\pagestretch
\pagetotal
\par
\parfillskip
\parindent
\parshape
\parshapedimen
\parshapeindent
\parshapelength
\parskip
\patterns
\pausing
\pdfcreationdate
\pdfelapsedtime
\pdffiledump
\pdffilemoddate
\pdffilesize
\pdflastxpos
\pdflastypos
\pdfmdfivesum
\pdfnormaldeviate
\pdfpageheight
\pdfpagewidth
\pdfprimitive
\pdfrandomseed
\pdfresettimer
\pdfsavepos
\pdfsetrandomseed
\pdfshellescape
\pdfstrcmp
\pdfuniformdeviate
\penalty
\postbreakpenalty
\postdisplaypenalty
\prebreakpenalty
\predisplaydirection
\predisplaypenalty
\predisplaysize
\pretolerance
\prevdepth
\prevgraf
\protected
\ptexminorversion
\ptexrevision
\ptexversion

### Primitives starting with "Q—T"

$$\text{Primitive}$$ $$\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version 3.14159265}$$
$$\text{p}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version p3.8.1}$$
$$\text{ep}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version no. 180226}$$
$$\text{up}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version u1.23}$$
$$\text{eup}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{composite}$$
\raise
\relax
\relpenalty
\right
\righthyphenmin
\rightskip
\romannumeral
\savinghyphcodes
\scantokens
\scriptbaselineshiftfactor
\scriptfont
\scriptscriptbaselineshiftfactor
\scriptscriptfont
\scriptscriptstyle
\scriptspace
\scriptstyle
\scrollmode
\setbox
\setlanguage
\sfcode
\shipout
\show
\showbox
\showboxdepth
\showgroups
\showifs
\showlists
\showmode
\showthe
\showtokens
\sjis
\skewchar
\skip
\skipdef
\spacefactor
\spaceskip
\span
\special
\specialout
\splitbotmark
\splitbotmarks
\splitfirstmark
\splitfirstmarks
\splitmaxdepth
\splittopskip
\string
\synctex
\tabskip
\tate
\tbaselineshift
\textbaselineshiftfactor
\textfont
\textstyle
\TeXXeTstate
\tfont
\the
\thickmuskip
\thinmuskip
\time
\toks
\toksdef
\tolerance
\topmark
\topmarks
\topskip
\tracingassigns
\tracingcharsubdef
\tracingcommands
\tracinggroups
\tracingifs
\tracinglostchars
\tracingmacros
\tracingnesting
\tracingonline
\tracingoutput
\tracingpages
\tracingparagraphs
\tracingrestores
\tracingscantokens
\tracingstats

### Primitives starting with "U"

$$\text{Primitive}$$ $$\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version 3.14159265}$$
$$\text{p}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version p3.8.1}$$
$$\text{ep}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version no. 180226}$$
$$\text{up}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version u1.23}$$
$$\text{eup}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{composite}$$
\uccode
\uchyph
\ucs
\underline
\unexpanded
\unhbox
\unhcopy
\unkern
\unless
\unpenalty
\unskip
\unvbox
\unvcopy
\uppercase
\uptexrevision
\uptexversion

### Primitives starting with "V—Z"

$$\text{Primitive}$$ $$\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version 3.14159265}$$
$$\text{p}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version p3.8.1}$$
$$\text{ep}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version no. 180226}$$
$$\text{up}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{version u1.23}$$
$$\text{eup}\mathrm\TeX$$
$$\scriptsize\text{composite}$$
\valign
\vbox
\vcenter
\vfi
\vfil
\vfill
\vfilneg
\vfuzz
\voffset
\vrule
\vsize
\vskip
\vsplit
\vss
\vtop
\wd
\widowpenalties
\widowpenalty
\write
\xchrcode
\xdef
\xkanjiskip