This paper presents a new entropy minimization criterion and corresponding algorithms that are used for both symbol timing and carrier frequency recovery for underwater acoustic receivers. It relies on the entropy estimation of the eye diagram and the constellation diagram of the received signal. During the parameter search, when perfect synchronization is achieved, the entropy will reach a global minimum, indicating the least intersymbol interference or a restored constellation diagram. Unlike other synchronization methods, this unified criterion can be used to build an all-in-one synchronizer with high accuracy. The feasibility of this method is proven using a theoretical analysis and supported by sea trial measurement data.
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